Within the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G), the following guidelines and standards have been established regarding glacier fluctuations:

Measurement of glacier front variations

  • Forel, F.A. (1895): Instructions pour l’observation des variations des glaciers. Discours préliminaire. Archives des Sciences physiques et naturelles, XXXIV: 209-229.
  • PSFG (1967): Fluctuations of Glaciers 1959-1965 (Vol. I). P. Kasser (ed.), IAHS (ICSI) / UNESCO, Permanent Service on Fluctuations on Glaciers, Zurich, Switzerland: 52 pp.

Measurement of glacier mass balance

  • Francou, B., Pouyaud, B. and 12 others (2004). Métodos de observación de glaciares en los Andes opicales. Mediciones de terreno y procesamiento de datos. Versión 1, Great Ice, IRD, France: 238pp. [pdf]
  • Kaser, G., Fountain, A., and Jansson, P. (2003): A manual for monitoring the mass balance of mountain glaciers with particular attention to low latitude characteristics. A contribution from the International Commission on Snow and Ice (ICSI) to the UNESCO HKH-Friend programme. IHP-VI, Technical Documents in Hydrology, No. 59, UNESCO, Paris. 107 p. + Appendices. [pdf]
  • Østrem, G. and Stanley, A. (1969): Glacier mass balance measurements. A manual for field and office work. Canadian Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Norwegian Water Resources and Electricity Board. 125 pp.
  • Østrem, G. and Brugman, M. (1991): Glacier mass-balance measurements: a manual for field and office work, NHRI Science Report. 224 pp. [pdf]
  • Stumm, D., Joshi, S.P., Salzmann, N. and S. MacDonell (2017): In situ monitoring of mountain glaciers: Experiences from mountain ranges around the world and recommendations for the Hindu Kush Himalaya. ICIMOD Working Paper 2017/7. Kathmandu: ICIMOD. [pdf]
  • UNESCO 1970/73. Combined heat, ice and water balances at selected glacier basins. Part I: A guide for compilation and assemblage of data for glacier mass balance measurements. Part II: Specifications, standards and data exchange. UNESCO/ IAHS Technical Papers in Hydrology 5. [pdf]
  • Zemp, M., Thibert, E., Huss, M., Stumm, D., Rolstad Denby, C., Nuth, C., Nussbaumer, S.U., Moholdt, G., Mercer, A., Mayer, C., Joerg, P.C., Jansson, P., Hynek, B., Fischer, A., Escher-Vetter, H., Elvehøy, H. and L.M. Andreassen (2013): Reanalysing glacier mass balance measurement series. The Cryosphere 7, 1227-1245, doi: 10.5194/tc-7-1227-2013. [pdf]

Mass balance terminology

  • Anonymous (1969): Mass-balance terms. Journal of Glaciology, 8 (52): 3-7.
  • Cogley, J.G. (2010): Mass-balance terms revisited. Journal of Glaciology, 56 (200): 997-1001. [pdf]
  • Cogley, J.G., Hock, R., Rasmussen, L.A., Arendt, A.A., Bauder, A., Braithwaite, R.J., Jansson, P., Kaser, G., Möller, M., Nicholson, L. and Zemp, M. (2011): Glossary of Glacier Mass Balance and Related Terms. IHP_VII Technical Documents in Hydrology No. 86, IACS Contribution No. 2, UNESCO-IHP, Paris. [pdf]

Guidelines for the submission of glacier fluctuations

  • WGMS (2014a, updated from earlier versions): Call-for-Data 2012/13: General Guidelines for Data Submission and Notes on the Completion of Data Sheets. World Glacier Monitoring Service, Zurich, Switzerland: 16 pp. [pdf]
  • WGMS (2014b, updated from earlier versions): Digital Data Submission Form. World Glacier Monitoring Service, Zurich, Switzerland. [excel]

Uncertainty assessment of glacier mass balance

  • Fischer, A. (2010): Glaciers and climate change: Interpretation of 50 years of direct mass balance of Hintereisferner. Global and Planetary Change, 71 (1-2): 13-26. link
  • Huss, M., Bauder, A. and Funk, M. (2009): Homogenization of long-term mass-balance time series. Annals of Glaciology, 50 (50), 198-206. link
  • Koblet, T., Gärtner-Roer, I., Zemp, M., Jansson, P., Thee, P., Haeberli, W. and Holmlund, P. (2010): Reanalysis of multi-temporal aerial images of Storglaciären, Sweden (1959-99) – Part 1: Determination of length, area, and volume changes. The Cryosphere, 4 (3): 333-343. link
  • Nuth, C. and Kääb, A. (2010): Co-registration and bias corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantifying glacier thickness change. The Cryosphere, 5 (1): 271-290. link
  • Rolstad, C., Haug, T. and Denby, B. (2009): Spatially integrated geodetic glacier mass balance and its uncertainty based on geostatistical analysis: application to the western Svartisen ice cap, Norway. Journal of Glaciology, 55 (192): 666-680. link
  • Thibert, E., Blanc, R., Vincent, C., and Eckert, N. (2008): Glaciological and volumetric mass-balance measurements: error analysis over 51 years for Glacier de Sarennes, French Alps. Journal of Glaciology, 54 (186): 522-532. link
  • Zemp, M., Jansson, P., Holmlund, P., Gärtner-Roer, I., Koblet, T., Thee, P., and Haeberli, W. (2010): Reanalysis of multi-temporal aerial images of Storglaciären, Sweden (1959-99) – Part 2: Comparison of glaciological and volumetric mass balances. The Cryosphere, 4 (3): 345-357. link

For more guidelines related to the monitoring strategy and glacier inventories, please see the GTN-G website.

More selected literature on the international glacier monitoring is listed under literature.

If you have any further questions concerning these guidelines, please do not hesitate to contact us!

last change 7/07/2017