latest glacier mass balance data

1 Summary of the balance years 2015/16 and 2016/17 (preliminary)

Mass balance values for the observation period 2015/16 will be reported from more than 130 glaciers worldwide. The mass balance statistics (Table 1) are calculated based on all reported values and on available data from the 40 reference glaciers with continued observation series of more than 30 years (Table 2). In addition, preliminary mass balance values are given for 2016/17 for some glaciers.

The average mass balance of the glaciers with available long-term observation series around the world continues to be negative, with tentative figures indicating a further thickness reduction of 1.1 meters water equivalent (m w.e.) during the hydrological year 2015. The new data continues the global trend in strong ice loss over the past few decades and brings the cumulative average thickness loss of the reference glaciers since 1980 at almost 20 m w.e. (see Figures 1 and 2). All so far reported mass balance values, given in Table 3, are tentative.

Table 1: Overview on mass balance data 2015/16 and preliminary values for 2016/17. Statistics are given for all reported glaciers (ALL) and for the available ‘reference’ glaciers with continuous long-term observation series (REF).

2015/162016/17
ALLREFREF
Mean annual mass balance (mm w.e.)-861-865
Minimum value (mm w.e.)-2284-2284
Maximum value (mm w.e.)+561+561
Standard deviation (mm w.e.)592584
Number of positive/reported balances4/541/29

Table 2: Reference glaciers with continuous long-term observation series.

Mountain rangeGlaciers
AlaskaGulkana, Wolverine
Pacific Coast RangesPlace, South Cascade, Helm, Lemon Creek, Peyto, Columbia (2057)
AndesEchaurren Norte
Canadian High ArcticDevon Ice Cap NW, Meighen Ice Cap, White, Melville South Ice Cap
SvalbardAustre Broeggerbreen, Midtre Lovénbreen
ScandinaviaEngabreen, Alfotbreen, Nigardsbreen, Grasubreen, Storbreen, Hellstugubreen, Remebesdalsskaaka (Hardangerjoekulen), Storglaciaeren
AlpsSaint Sorlin, Sarennes, Argentière, Silvretta, Gries, Stubacher Sonnblickkees, Vernagtferner, Kesselwandferner, Hintereisferner, Caresèr, Wurtenkees
CaucasusDjankuat
AltaiNo. 125 (Vodopadniy), Maliy Aktru, Leviy Aktru
Tien ShanTs. Tuyuksuyskiy, Urumqi Glacier No.1

The corresponding annual and cumulative mass balance results of this data set from glaciers in the Americas and Eurasia are visualized in the following two figures:

Figure 1: Mean annual mass balance of reference glaciers. pdf

Mean annual mass balance of reference glaciers

 

Figure 2: Mean cumulative mass balance of all reported glaciers (blue line) and the reference glaciers (red line). pdf

Mean cumulative mass balance of all reported glaciers (blue line) and the reference glaciers (red line)

For more detailed analysis of the global mass balance dataset, see the following selected publications and references therein:

  • Braithwaite, R.J. 2002. Glacier mass balance: the first 50 years of international monitoring. Progr. Phys. Geogr., 26 (1), 76-95.
  • Cogley, J.G. and W.P. Adams. 1998. Mass balance of glaciers other than the ice sheets. J. Glaciol., 44 (147), 315-325.
  • Dyurgerov, M.B. 2002. Glacier mass balance and regime: data of measurements and analysis. Boulder, CO, University of Colorado, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research. INSTAAR Occasional Paper 55.
  • Dyurgerov, M.B. and M.F. Meier. 2005. Glaciers and the changing Earth system: a 2004 snapshot. Boulder, CO, University of Colorado, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research. INSTAAR Occasional Paper 58.
  • Kaser, G., Cogley, J.G., Dyurgerov, M.B., Meier, M.F. and A. Ohmura. 2006. Mass balance of glaciers and ice caps: consensus estimates for 1961-2004. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 (19), L19501.
  • Meier, M.F., Dyurgerov, M.B., Rick, U.K., O’Neel, S., Pfeffer, W.T., Anderson, R.S., Anderson, S.P. and A.F. Glazovsky. 2007. Glaciers dominate eustatic sea-level rise in the 21st century. Science, 317 (5841): 1064-1067.
  • Ohmura, A. 2006. Changes in mountain glaciers and ice caps during the 20th century. Ann. Glaciol., 43, 361-368.
  • WGMS. 2008. Global Glacier Changes: facts and figures. Zemp, M., Roer, I., Kääb, A., Hoelzle, M., Paul, F. and W. Haeberli (eds.), UNEP, World Glacier Monitoring Service, Zurich, Switzerland: 88 pp.
  • WGMS. 2013. Glacier Mass Balance Bulletin No. 12 (2010-2011). Zemp, M., Nussbaumer, S.U., Naegeli, K., Gärtner-Roer, I., Paul, F., Hoelzle, M., and Haeberli, W. (eds.), ICSU (WDS) / IUGG (IACS) / UNEP / UNESCO / WMO, World Glacier Monitoring Service, Zurich, Switzerland: 106 pp., publication based on database version: doi: 10.5904/wgms-fog-2013-11.
  • WGMS. 2012. Fluctuations of Glaciers 2005-2010 (Vol. X): Zemp, M., Frey, H., Gärtner-Roer, I., Nussbaumer, S.U., Hoelzle, M., Paul, F. & W. Haeberli (eds.), ICSU (WDS)/ IUGG (IACS)/ UNEP/ UNESCO/ WMO, World Glacier Monitorings Service, Zurich, Switzerland. Based on database version doi: 10.5904/wgms-fog-2012-11.
  • Zemp, M., Hoelzle, M. and W. Haeberli. 2009. Six decades of glacier mass balance observations – a review of the worldwide monitoring network. Annals of Glaciology, 50A018.
  • Zemp, M., Frey, H., Gärtner-Roer, I., Nussbaumer, S.U., Hoelzle, M., Paul, F., Haeberli, W., Denzinger, F., Ahlstroem, A.P., Anderson, B., Bajracharya, S., Baroni, C., Braun, L.N., Caceres, B.E., Casassa, G., Cobos, G., Davila, L.R., Delgado Granados, H., Demuth, M.N., Espizua, L., Fischer, A., Fujita, K., Gadek, B., Ghazanfar, A., Hagen J.O., Holmlund, P., Karimi, N., Li, Z., Pelto, M., Pitte, P., Popovnin, V.V., Portocarrero, C.A., Prinz, R., Sangewar, C.V., Severskiy, I., Sigurdsson, O., Soruco, A., Usubaliev, R., and Vincent, C. (2015): Historically unprecedented global glacier decline in the early 21st century. Journal of Glaciology, 61 (228), p. 745-762. doi: 10.3189/2015JoG15J017

2 Mass balance data

Table 3: Reported mass balance values of the observation period 2015/16, as well as *preliminary values for 2016/17. Principal investigators are listed for submitted data of 2015/16.

NameMB16*MB17investigator/sponsoring agency
[mm w.e.][mm w.e.]
Antarctica
Bahia del DiabloS. Marinsek, J.L. Seco, E. Ermolin (Instituto Antártico Argentino)
Hurd+290F. Navarro and colleagues (UPM/ETSIT)
Johnsons+530F. Navarro and colleagues (UPM/ETSIT)
Argentina
Brown SuperiorG. Cabrera and colleagues (IANIGLA)
Conconta NorteG. Cabrera and colleagues (IANIGLA)
Los AmarillosG. Cabrera and colleagues (IANIGLA)
Martial EsteR. Iturraspe and colleagues (Universidad Nacional de Tierra del Fuego)
Austria
GoldbergkeesB. Hynek and colleagues (ZAMG)
Halstaetter GletscherA. Fischer and colleagues (Energie AG)
Hintereisferner-1263Juen I., Galos S., Kaser G. and colleagues (ACINN)
JamtalfernerA. Fischer and colleagues (HD/LT)
Kesselwandferner-500Juen I., Galos S., Kaser G. and colleagues (ACINN)
KleinfleisskeesB. Hynek and colleagues (ZAMG)
PasterzeB. Hynek and colleagues (ZAMG)
ObersulzbachkeesA. Fischer and colleagues (HD/LS)
Stubacher Sonnblickkees-828H Wiesenegger, H. Slupetzky and colleagues (HD/SB)(HD/LS)
Venediger Kees
Vernagtferner-781Braun L., Mayer C. and colleagues (CGGBAS)
WurtenkeesS. Reisenhofer and colleagues (ZAMG)
Zettalunitz/MullwitzA. Fischer and colleagues (HD/LS)
Bolivia
Chacaltayavanished
Charquini SurA. Soruco and colleagues (IGEMA)
ZongoA. Soruco and colleagues (IGEMA)
Canada
Devon Ice Cap NW-483D.O. Burgess and colleagues (GSC)
HelmM. Demuth, M. Ednie and colleagues (NRCan)
Meighen Ice Cap-775D.O. Burgess and colleagues (GSC)
Melville South Ice Cap-782D.O. Burgess and colleagues (GSC)
Peyto-1844M. Demuth, M. Ednie and colleagues (NRCan)
Place-1330M. Demuth, M. Ednie and colleagues (NRCan)
WhiteL. Thomson and colleagues (Uottawa/DG, TU/G)
Chile
AmarilloG. Cabrera and colleagues (IANIGLA)
GuanacoA. Rivera and colleagues (CECs)
Echaurren Norte-2284G. Barcaza and colleagues (DGA)
China
Urumqi Glacier No.1-1017H. Li and colleagues (CAREERI/CAS)
- East BranchH. Li and colleagues (CAREERI/CAS)
- West BranchH. Li and colleagues (CAREERI/CAS)
Parlung (Glacier No. 94)S. Li, W. Yang, and colleagues (ITPR/CAS)
Colombia
ConejerasJorge Luis Ceballos and colleagues (IDEAM)
Ritacuba BlancoJorge Luis Ceballos and colleagues (IDEAM)
Ecuador
Antizana 15 AlphaB. Caceres and colleagues (INAMHI)
France
ArgentìereC. Vincent and D. Six (CNRS)
Bionnassay
GebroulazC. Vincent and D. Six (CNRS)
OssoueP. René and colleagues (Association Moraine)
Saint SorlinC. Vincent and D. Six (CNRS)
Sarennes-1510E. Thibert and colleagues (IRSTEA)
Tre la tete-820L. Moreau and colleagues (CNRS EDYTEM)
Greenland
FreyaB. Hynek and colleagues (ZAMG)
Mittivakkat-1770N.T. Knudsen, S. Mernild and colleagues (NTK)
QasigiannguitJ. Abermann and colleagues (GEM/ASIAQ)
Iceland
BruarjökullF. Pálsson (University of Iceland), A. Gunnarsson (National Power Company of Iceland) and colleagues
DyngjujökullF. Pálsson (University of Iceland), A. Gunnarsson (National Power Company of Iceland) and colleagues
EyabakkajökullF. Pálsson (University of Iceland), A. Gunnarsson (National Power Company of Iceland) and colleagues
Hofsjökull E-1330Th. Thorsteinsson and colleagues (VEDUR)
Hofsjökull NTh. Thorsteinsson and colleagues (VEDUR)
Hofsjökull SWTh. Thorsteinsson and colleagues (VEDUR)
KöldukvislarjökullF. Pálsson (University of Iceland), A. Gunnarsson (National Power Company of Iceland) and colleagues
Langjökull Ice CapF. Pálsson (University of Iceland), A. Gunnarsson (National Power Company of Iceland) and colleagues
TungnarjökullF. Pálsson (University of Iceland), A. Gunnarsson (National Power Company of Iceland) and colleagues
India
Chhota ShigriA.L. Ramanathan and colleagues (JNU)
Italy
Calderone-940Massimo Pecci and colleagues (CGI)
Campo SettentrionaleR. Scotti and colleagues (SGL)
Careser-1748L. Carturan and colleagues (TeSAF/UNIPD)
Ciardoney-1800L. Mercalli and colleagues (SMI)
Fontana Bianca/Weissbrunnferner-1312R. Dinale, A. Di Lullo and colleagues (Hydrographisches Amt Bozen)
Grand EtretV. Bertoglio and colleagues (Parco Nazionale Gran Paradiso)
La Mare (southern branch)L. Carturan (TeSAF/UNIPD)
Lunga/LangenfernerS. Galos and colleagues (IMGI & UI/HA)
LupoR. Scotti and colleagues (SGL)
Malavalle/Übeltalferner-879G. Franchi, G. Rossi and colleagues (UI/HA)
Pendente/Hangender Ferner-1258G. Franchi, G. Rossi and colleagues (UI/HA)
Suretta MeridionaleR. Scotti and colleagues (SGL)
TimorionU. Morra di Cella and colleagues (ARPA)
Vedretta Occ. di Ries/Westlicher Rieserferner-793R. Dinale, A. Di Lullo and colleagues (Hydrographisches Amt Bozen)
Japan
Hamaguri Yukin.a.K. Fujita and K. Fukui (GSES-NU, TCSM)
Kazakhstan
Ts. Tuyuksuyskiy+561N.E. Kassatkin, K.G. Makarevich (Inst. of Geogr. of Ministry of Educ. & Sc. of KZ)
Kenya
LewisR. Prinz and colleagues (IMGI)
Kyrgyzstan
AbramovM. Barandun and colleagues (DGUF & CAIAG)
Batysh Sook/ Syek ZapadnyiR. Kenzhebaev (CAIAG), Barandun (DGUF) and colleagues
Bordu-450Victor Popovnin (MGU), Rysbek Satylkanov and Bakyt Ermenbayev (TShMRC)
Glacier No. 354 (Akshiirak)M. Barandun, M. Kronenberg and colleagues (DGUF&CAIAG)
Glacier No. 599E. Azisov, R. Usubaliev (CAIAG)
GolubinE. Azizov, M. Barandun and colleagues (CAIAG, DGUF, GFZ)
Karabatkak-390V. Popovnin (MGU), R. Satylkanov and colleagues (TShMRC)
Sary-Tor-790V. Popovnin (MGU), R. Satylkanov and colleagues (TShMRC)
Nepal
Changri NupP. Wagnon and colleagues (IRD)
MeraP. Wagnon and colleagues (IRD)
PokaldeP. Wagnon and colleagues (IRD)
Rikha SambaD. Stumm and colleagues (ICIMOD)
YalaD. Stumm and colleagues (ICIMOD)
New Zealand
BrewsterB. Anderson and colleagues (ARC & DGUO)
RollestonT. Kerr, H. Purdie and colleagues (NIWA)
Norway
Aalfotbreen-640B. Kjøllmoen and colleagues (NVE)
AustdalsbreeenH. Elvehøy and colleagues (NVE)
BlomstolskardsbreenB. Kjøllmoen and colleagues (NVE)
Breidalblikkbrea
Engabreen-260H. Elvehøy and colleagues (NVE))
Graafjellsbreen
Graasubreen-510L. M. Andreassen and colleagues (NVE)
HansebreenB. Kjøllmoen and colleagues (NVE)
Hellstugubreen-340L. M. Andreassen and colleagues (NVE)
Juvfonne
LangfjordjoekelenB. Kjøllmoen and colleagues (NVE)
Nigardsbreen+490B. Kjøllmoen and colleagues (NVE)
Remebesdalsskaaka-390H. Elvehøy and colleagues (NVE)
RundvassbreenB. Kjøllmoen and colleagues (NVE)
Storbreen-1020L. M. Andreassen and colleagues (NVE)
SvelgjabreenB. Kjøllmoen and colleagues (NVE)
Peru
ArtesonrajuAlejo Cochachin Rapre and colleagues (Autoridad Nacional del Agua, Unidad de Glaciología y Recursos Hídricos)
YanamareyAlejo Cochachin Rapre and colleagues (Autoridad Nacional del Agua, Unidad de Glaciología y Recursos Hídricos)
Russia
Djankuat-730V. Popovnin and colleagues (MSU)
GarabashiO.V. Rototayeva and colleagues (IGRAS)
Leviy Aktru
Maliy Aktru
No. 125 (Vodopadniy)
Spain
Maladeta-843G. Cobos Campos and colleagues (UPV)
Svalbard
Austre BroeggerbreenJ. Kohler and colleagues (NPOLAR)
Austre LovenbreenE. Bernard and colleagues (CNRS - Univ. Franche Comté)
HansbreenPiotr Glowacki,Michal Petlicki and colleagues (Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences)
IrenebreenIreneusz Sobota and colleagues (Nicolaus Copernicus Polar Station)
KongsvegenJ. Kohler and colleagues (NPOLAR)
Kronebreen/HoltedahlfonnaJ. Kohler and colleagues (NPOLAR) (balances excl. calving)
Midtre LovenbreenJ. Kohler and colleagues (NPOLAR)
WaldemarbreenIreneusz Sobota and colleagues (Nicolaus Copernicus Polar Station)
WerenskioldD. Ignatiuk (University of Silesia)
Sweden
Marmaglaciaeren-370P. Jansson and colleagues (Tarfala Research Station)
Rabots GlaciaerP. Jansson and colleagues (Tarfala Research Station)
RiukojietnaP. Jansson and colleagues (Tarfala Research Station)
Storglaciaeren-240P. Jansson and colleagues (Tarfala Research Station)
TarfalaglaciaerenP. Jansson and colleagues (Tarfala Research Station)
Switzerland
AdlerHuss, Salzmann, Leysinger-Vieli and colleagues (DGUF, GIUZ)
AllalinA. Bauder, M. Huss and colleagues (VAW)
BasodinoG. Kappenberger and colleagues
ClaridenU. Steinegger, G. Kappenberger and colleagues
CorbassiereA. Bauder, M. Huss and colleagues (VAW)
Corvatsch-SM. Fischer and colleagues (DGUF)
FindelenHuss, Salzmann, Leysinger-Vieli and colleagues (DGUF, GIUZ)
GietroA. Bauder, M. Huss and colleagues (VAW)
Gries-1200M. Funk, A. Bauder and colleagues (VAW))
HohlaubA. Bauder, M. Huss and colleagues (VAW)
MurtelM. Fischer and colleagues (DGUF)
PizolM. Huss and colleagues (DGUF, VAW)
Plaine MorteM. Huss and colleagues (DGUF, VAW)
RhoneA. Bauder and colleagues (VAW)
Sankt AnnaM. Fischer and colleagues (DGUF)
SchwarzbachM. Fischer and colleagues (DGUF)
SchwarzbergA. Bauder, M. Huss and colleagues (VAW)
Sex RougeM. Fischer and colleagues (DGUF)
Silvretta-600A. Bauder, M. Funk and colleagues (VAW)
TsanfleuronM. Huss and colleagues (DGUF)
USA
BlueM. Larrabee and colleagues (NCNP)
Columbia (2057)-1180M. Pelto and colleagues (NCGCP)
Daniels-640M. Pelto and colleagues (NCGCP)
Easton-820M. Pelto and colleagues (NCGCP)
EelM. Larrabee and colleagues (NCNP)
EmmonsM. Larrabee and colleagues (NCNP)
Foss
Gulkana-1400S. O'Neel, L. Sass and colleagues (USGS)
Ice Worm-780M. Pelto and colleagues (NCGCP)
Lemon Creek-1200M. Pelto and colleagues (JIRP)
Lower Curtis-1550M. Pelto and colleagues (NCGCP)
Lynch-1420M. Pelto and colleagues (NCGCP)
NisquallyM. Larrabee and colleagues (NCNP)
Noisy CreekM. Larrabee and colleagues (NCNP)
North KlawattiM. Larrabee and colleagues (NCNP)
Rainbow-880M. Pelto and colleagues (NCGCP)
SandaleeM. Larrabee and colleagues (NCNP)
SholesM. Pelto and colleagues (NCGCP)
SilverM. Larrabee and colleagues (NCNP)
South CascadeE. Whorton and colleagues (USGS)
SperryD. Fagre, A. Clark and colleagues (USGS)
Taku-780M. Pelto and colleagues (JIRP)
Wolverine-400S. O'Neel, L. Sass and colleagues (USGS)
Yawning-960M. Pelto and colleagues (NCGCP)
last change 26/10/2017